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1 - Wulff BE, Sakurai M, Nishikura K. Elucidating the inosinome: global approaches to adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2011;12:81-5. 21173775
2 - Iizasa H, Wulff BE, Alla NR, Maragkakis M, Megraw M, Hatzigeorgiou A, Iwakiri D, Takada K, Wiedmer A, Showe L, Lieberman P, Nishikura K. Editing of Epstein-Barr-virus-encoded BART6 microRNAs controls their dicer targeting and consequently affects viral latency. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2010;285:33358-70. 20716523 PMC2963350
3 - Mombereau C, Kawahara Y, Gundersen BB, Nishikura K, Blendy JA. Functional relevance of serotonin 2C receptor mRNA editing in antidepressant- and anxiety-like behaviors. Neuropharmacology. 2010;59:468-73.e1-4. 20624407 PMC2946438
4 - Nishikura K. Functions and regulation of RNA editing by ADAR deaminases. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 2010;79:321-49. [Review] 20192758
5 - Wulff BE, Nishikura K. Substitutional A-to-I RNA editing. WIREs RNA. 2010;1:90-101. 21072321 PMC2976053
6 - Zinshteyn B, Nishikura K. Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Systems Biology and Medicine. 2009;1:202-9. 20835992
7 - Kawahara Y, Nishikura K. [Regulation of the miRNA function by RNA editing] [Article in Japanese] Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. Protein, nucleic acid, enzyme. 2009;54:1133-40. 19588876
8 - Iizasa H, Nishikura K. A new function for the RNA-editing ADAR1. Nature Immunology. 2009;10:16-8.
9 - Kawahara Y, Grimberg A, Teegarden S, Mombereau C, Liu S, Bale TL, Blendy JA, Nishikura K. Dysregulated editing of serotonin 2C receptor mRNAs results in energy dissipation and loss of fat mass. Journal of Neuroscience. 2008;28:12834-44. 19036977 PMC2615198
10 - Kawahara Y, Megraw M, Kreider E, Iizasa H, Valente L, Hatzigeorgiou AG, Nishikura K. Frequency and fate of microRNA editing in human brain. Nucleic Acids Research. 2008;36:5270-80. 18684997 PMC2532740
11 - Wang Z, Choi MK, Ban T, Yanai H, Negishi H, Lu Y, Tamura T, Takaoka A, Nishikura K, Taniguchi T. Regulation of innate immune responses by DAI (DLM-1/ZBP1) and other DNA-sensing molecules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2008;105:5477-82. 18375758 PMC2291118
12 - Kawahara Y. Zinshteyn B. Chendrimada TP. Shiekhattar R. Nishikura K. RNA editing of the microRNA-151 precursor blocks cleavage by the Dicer-TRBP complex. EMBO Reports. 2007;8:763-9. 17599088
13 - Valente L. Nishikura K. RNA-Binding independent dimerization of ADAR and dominant negative effects of nonfunctional subunits on dimer functions. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2007; 282:16054-61. 17428802
14 - Kawahara Y. Zinshteyn B. Sethupathy P. Iizasa H. Hatzigeorgiou AG. Nishikura K. Redirection of silencing targets by adenosine-to-inosine editing of miRNAs. Science. 2007;315:1137-40. 17322061
15 - Nishikura K. Editor meets silencer: crosstalk between RNA editing and RNA interference. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2006;7:919-31. 17139332
16 - Kawahara Y. Nishikura K. Extensive adenosine-to-inosine editing detected in Alu repeats of antisense RNAs reveals scarcity of sense-antisense duplex formation. FEBS Letters. 2006; 580:2301-5. 16574103
17 - Yang W. Chendrimada TP. Wang Q. Higuchi M. Seeburg PH. Shiekhattar R. Nishikura K. Modulation of microRNA processing and expression through RNA editing by ADAR deaminases. Nature Structural and Molecular Biology. 2006;13:13-21. 16369484
18 - Maas S. Kawahara Y. Tamburro KM. Nishikura K. A-to-I RNA editing and human disease. RNA Biology. 2006;3:e1-e9.
19 - Chendrimada TP. Gregory RI. Kumaraswamy E. Norman J. Cooch N. Nishikura K. Shiekhattar R. ' TRBP recruits the Dicer complex to Ago2 for microRNA processing and gene silencing. Nature. 2005;436:740-4. 15973356
20 - Yang W. Wang Q. Howell KL. Lee JT. Cho DS. Murray JM. Nishikura K. ADAR1 RNA deaminase limits siRNA efficacy in mammalian cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005;280:3946-53. 15556947
21 - Valente L. Nishikura K. ADAR gene family and A-to-I RNA editing: diverse roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. In: K. Moldave, ed. Progress in Nucleic Acid Research and Molecular Biology, Vol. 79, pp. 299-338. Academic Press, 2005.
22 - Nishikura K. Editing the message from A to I. Nature Biotechnology. 2004; 22:962-3. 15286646
23 - Yang W. Wang Q. Kanes SJ. Murray JM. Nishikura K. Altered RNA editing of serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor induced by interferon: implications for depression associated with cytokine therapy. Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. 2004; 124:70-8. 15093687
24 - Wang Q. Miyakoda M. Yang W. Khillan J. Stachura DL. Weiss MJ. Nishikura K. Stress-induced apoptosis associated with Null mutation of ADAR1 RNA editing deaminase gene. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2004;279:4952-61. 14613934
25 - Cho DS. Yang W. Lee JT. Shiekhattar R. Murray JM. Nishikura K. Requirement of dimerization for RNA editing activity of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003;278:17093-102. 12618436
26 - Maas S. Rich A. Nishikura K. A-to-I RNA editing: recent news and residual mysteries. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003;278:1391-4. 12446659
27 - Nishikura K. A short primer on RNAi: RNA-directed RNA polymerase acts as a key catalyst. [Review] Cell. 2001;107:415-8. 11719182
28 - Raitskin O. Cho DS. Sperling J. Nishikura K. Sperling R. RNA editing activity is associated with splicing factors in lnRNP particles: The nuclear pre-mRNA processing machinery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 2001;98:6571-6. 11381114
29 - Wang Q. Khillan J. Gadue P. Nishikura K. Requirement of the RNA editing deaminase ADAR1 gene for embryonic erythropoiesis. [see comments]. Science. 2000;290:1765-8. 11099415
30 - Chen CX. Cho DS. Wang Q. Lai F. Carter KC. Nishikura K. A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene family, ADAR3, contains both single- and double-stranded RNA binding domains. Rna-A Publication of the Rna Society. 2000;6:755-67. 10836796
31 - Wang Q. OBrien PJ. Chen CX. Cho DS. Murray JM. Nishikura K. Altered G protein-coupling functions of RNA editing isoform and splicing variant serotonin2C receptors. Journal of Neurochemistry. 2000;74:1290-300. 10693963
32 - Bass BL. Nishikura K. Keller W. Seeburg PH. Emeson RB. OConnell MA. Samuel CE. Herbert A. A standardized nomenclature for adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. Rna. 1997;3:947-9. 9292492
33 - Herbert A. Alfken J. Kim YG. Mian IS. Nishikura K. Rich A. A Z-DNA binding domain present in the human editing enzyme, double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1997;94:8421-6. 9237992
34 - Lai F. Chen CX. Lee VM. Nishikura K. Dramatic increase of the RNA editing for glutamate receptor subunits during terminal differentiation of clonal human neurons. Journal of Neurochemistry. 1997;69:43-52. 9202292
35 - Lai F. Chen CX. Carter KC. Nishikura K. Editing of glutamate receptor B subunit ion channel RNAs by four alternatively spliced DRADA2 double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminases. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1997;17:2413-24. 9111310
36 - Chan L. Nishikura K. Mammalian RNA editing. In: Morris D; Harford JB, editors. Post-transcriptional gene regulation, Modern Cell biology, vol. 15. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1997. p.61-82
37 - Dabiri GA. Lai F. Drakas RA. Nishikura K. Editing of the GLuR-B ion channel RNA in vitro by recombinant double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase. EMBO Journal. 1996;15:34-45. 8598204
38 - Lai F. Drakas R. Nishikura K. Mutagenic analysis of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for RNA editing of glutamate-gated ion channel transcripts. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1995;270:17098-105. 7615504
39 - Wang Y. Zeng Y. Murray JM. Nishikura K. Genomic organization and chromosomal location of the human dsRNA adenosine deaminase gene: the enzyme for glutamate-activated ion channel RNA editing. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1995;254:184-95. 7490742
40 - Kim U. Garner TL. Sanford T. Speicher D. Murray JM. Nishikura K. Purification and characterization of double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase from bovine nuclear extracts. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994;269:13480-9. 8175781
41 - Kim U. Wang Y. Sanford T. Zeng Y. Nishikura K. Molecular cloning of cDNA for double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase, a candidate enzyme for nuclear RNA editing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA. 1994;91:11457-61. 7972084
42 - Kim U. Nishikura K. Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase as a potential mammalian RNA editing factor. [Review] Seminars in Cell Biology. 1993;4:285-93. 8241470
43 - Kim U. Nishikura K. Double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase: a potential agent for RNA editing?' In: Benne R, editor. RNA editing: The alteration of protein coding sequences of RNA. Simon and Schuster International; 1993. p. 179-192.
44 - Nishikura, K. 1992. A cellular activity that modifies and alters the structure of double-stranded RNA. In: Gene Regulation by Antisense Nucleic Acids, Keystone Symposia Series on Molecular and Cellular Biology (R.P. Erickson and J. Izant, eds.) Raven Press, New York, pp. 21-34.
45 - Nishikura, K. 1992. Modulation of double-stranded RNAs in vivo by RNA duplex unwindase. In: Antisense Strategies, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 660 (R. Baserga and D.T. Denhardt, eds.) The New York Academy of Sciences, New York, pp. 240-250.
46 - Nishikura K. Yoo C. Kim U. Murray JM. Estes PA. Cash FE. Liebhaber SA. Substrate specificity of the dsRNA unwinding/modifying activity. EMBO Journal. 1991; 10:3523-32. 1915306
47 - Phillips, P.D., Pignolo, R.J., Nishikura K., and Cristofalo, V.J. 1992. Renewed DNA synthesis in senescent WI-38 cells by expression of an inducible chimeric c-fos construct. J. Cell. Physiol. 15:206-212.
48 - Yokoyama, K., Hou, D.-X., Gao, H., Tang, X., Kitabayashi, I., Nishikura, K., and Gachelin, G. 1992. Inhibition of expressionof a mouse α-globin gene by plasmids that include antisense oligonucleotides. Cell Struct. Funct. 17; 433-442.
The microscope in the image belonged to William E. Horner, M.D., a collaborator with Caspar Wistar, M.D., in the early 1800s.
Dr. Horner, a lecturer at the University of Pennsylvania, was a pioneer of the use of microscopes in anatomical and medical research. He authored Special Anatomy and Histology, a seminal text on the subject.